Grade 2 Titanium

Grade 2 titanium is a popular choice for commercial use due to its strength, durability, and corrosion resistance. This grade of titanium has a minimum yield strength of 275 MPa and a minimum ultimate tensile strength of 450 MPa, making it one of the strongest grades of commercially pure titanium. The strain hardening is eliminated during 600°C annealing. Hence, relatively lower strength and better ductility are obtained. Usually for grade 2 titanium tubes, the annealing temperature should be at 600°C. The annealing process is a heat treatment of titanium that changes the physical and sometimes also the chemical properties to reduce the hardness to make it more workable. The purpose of annealing is to improve the grade 2 titanium machinability.

This grade of titanium is commonly used in the aerospace, automotive, and medical industries due to its ability to withstand high temperatures and harsh environments. It is also widely used in the construction industry for its corrosion resistance, making it a popular choice for outdoor structures and infrastructure. Examples of how titanium can be used to structural repair of historic buildings include the Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao which is sheathed in Titanium panels. Titanium was used as a part of the 2008 structural repair and stabilization for the Leaning tower of Pisa in Italy.

In addition to its strength and corrosion resistance, grade 2 titanium is also biocompatible, making it suitable for use in medical implants and devices. It is also non-toxic and non-allergenic, making it a safe choice for use in food processing and handling equipment. Grade 2 titanium is the main unalloyed titanium used in dental implant applications.

Titanium, specifically grade 2, is biocompatible because it has a low electrical conductivity which contributes to the electrochemical oxidation of titanium leading to the formation of a thin passive oxide layer. Titanium alloys are used in biomedical implant devices which replace damaged hard tissue. Some examples of titanium use in biomedical applications are dental and orthopedic implants, artificial hearts, pacemakers, artificial knee joints, bone plates, cardiac valve prostheses, screws for fracture fixation, artificial hip joints and cornea backplates. Titanium and titanium alloys have therefore been used widely as biomedical implant materials since the early 1970s and the implants have been available as machined and cast components. 

Grade 2 titanium is a versatile and reliable material that is widely used in a variety of commercial applications as well due to its strength and durability. Additionally, grade 2 titanium is lightweight, yet strong, making it a popular choice for automotive parts, aerospace, and sporting goods. The main drawback in some industries is the cost versus weigh consideration. Titanium is considerably more expensive than steel or aluminum. Manufacturers and fabricators must look at the benefits of saving on weight to add strength while also minimizing expenses in some other areas.

Other industries Grade 2 has become primary metal include oil and gas components, reaction and pressure vessels, tubing or piping systems, heat exchangers, liners, flue-gas desulphurization systems and many other industrial components. The fact that Grade 2 is commercially pure Titanium and provides light weight and corrosion resistance but isn't quite as strong as alloys like Grade 5 while still possessing excellent tensile strength, makes it an ideal choice for high-pressure and temperature systems.

Titanium Grade 2 has good ductility or its ability to have its shape changed, which allows for cold formability. Titanium can also be easily machined, hot worked and welded. Hot working should be performed between 400°F and 600°F. Stress relieving should be performed by heating to a temperature between 900°F and 1100°F followed by either forced air or slow cooling. Welding of Grade 2 titanium can be performed using various methods such as MIG and TIG. Inert gas shielding is crucial to prevent oxygen pickup and embrittlement of the weld area. Preheat or post heat treatments are not required.

Ultimately Grade 2 brings its skillset as pure alpha titanium. It has become the most widely used titanium alloy in all product forms for industrial service because of moderate strength and excellent corrosion resistance and formability.